sabato 3 dicembre 2011

Greek Science of the Hellenistic Era: A Sourcebook

Greek Science of the Hellenistic Era: A Sourcebook
(Routledge Sourcebooks for the Ancient World)

Georgia L. Irby-Massie, Paul T. Keyser

Tutti noi vogliamo capire il mondo intorno a noi, e gli antichi greci furono i primi a cercare di farlo in un modo che possiamo chiamare propriamente scientifica. Il loro pensiero e gli scritti ha posto le basi essenziali per le riprese della scienza nella Baghdad medievale e rinascimentale in Europa. Ora il loro lavoro è accessibile a tutti, con questa introduzione inestimabile per c. 100 autori scientifica attiva da 320 aC a 230 dC. Il libro inizia con un contorno di un nuovo modello socio-politico per lo sviluppo e il declino della scienza greca, seguito da undici capitoli che coprono le principali discipline: * la scienza che i greci vedevano come fondamentali - la matematica * * astrologia astronomia e geografia * * ottica meccanica e pneumatica * la non-matematiche di alchimia, la biologia, la medicina e 'psicologia'. ogni capitolo contiene un'introduzione accessibile sulle origini e lo sviluppo del tema in questione, e tutti gli autori si trovano in contesto con brevi biografie .

Note added in proof
2.1 Eukleidês
1 Definitions
Postulates [1–3 assert that space is continuous and infinite]
Common notions [equality of geometrical figures means either in length or area as appropriate]
1.47 [“Pythagoras’ Theorem”]
2.11 [constructing the proportion used in the Parthenon, which we call
3.16 [the infinitesimal “horn-angle” between a circle and a tangent line]
7 Definitions [numbers are usually represented by the length of a line-segment]
9.20 [prime numbers]
9.35 [sum of geometric series]
10 Definitions [commensurable and incommensurable numbers: Fowler [1992]]
10.1 [Eudoxos’ approach to the limit bypassing infinitesimals (“exhaustion”)]
10.3 [greatest common divisor]
12.2 [“exhaustion” used to determine circular area]
12.10 [Demokritos’ theorem]
2.2 Archimedes
Area of the Circle [surviving only in a paraphrased version; see Dijksterhuis [1956/1987] 222–240]
Definitions 1 [the figure discovered by Archimedes, based on which he built the screw and the auger; see Dijksterhuis [1956/1987] 264–285]
3.1–4 [expressing large numbers in base-one-hundred-million: see Dijksterhuis [1956/1987] 360–373; compare the base-ten-thousand system of Apollonios of Pergê’s lost Okutokion in which he calculated “pi”; Archimedes in this work is replying to the Greek proverb that the grains of sand are innumerable, as in Pindar, Olympians 2.98]
Praeface [quadrature of the parabola: compare Dijksterhuis [1956/1987] 313–318]
2.3 Eratosthenes
Duplication of the Cube [using a mechanical calculator similar to a slide-rule]
2.4 Apollonios
1 Preface
Proposition 8 [our “parabola”—so named by Apollonios in Proposition 11]
2.5 Combinatorics:
(in Plutarch, Dinner-table Talk 8.9)
2.6 Heron
1.8 [area of triangle]
2.7 Menelaus
1 Definitions
2.8 Nikomachos
Introduction to Arithmetic
1.13 [sieve of Eratosthenes]
2.8–10 [polygonal numbers; compare Theon, Mathematics 1.19]
2.9 Ptolemy
1.10.1–10 [Trigonometry: Toomer [1973]]
2.10 Diophantos
1 Praeface [“Algebra”]
1.28 [quadratic equations]
2.11 Anatolios
On the Decade
About the monad [compare Theon of Smurna, Mathematics 2.40]
About the heptad [compare Theon of Smurna, Mathematics 2.46; underlined passages probably belong at the respective symbols]
About the decade
3.1 Autolukos
Moving Sphere 6
Risings and Settings
3.2 Klearchos
(title unknown) [“Man in the moon”]
3.3 Aristarchos
Sizes and Distances
Hypotheses [sun and moon]
3.4 Chrusippos
Book 1 [Here he is describing the Stoic teaching that the kosmos periodically is consumed by flame and in a way reborn; compare Plato, Timaios 33cd, “the kosmos is continuously eating and excreting itself.”]
3.5 Apollonios
3.6 Hegesianax
3.7 Hupsikles
4.1–4 [rising times of zodiac signs]
3.8 Hipparchos
(various works) [length of the year]
Displacement of the Solistical and Equinoctial Points
3.9 Theodosios
1 Definitions
3.10 Poseidonios
(title unknown)
fr. 131b E-K [origin of comets]
3.11 Alexander
3.12 Anonymous
2 (392a6–31) [aither: star material]
3.13 Xenarchos
Against the Fifth Element
3.14 Geminus
1.13–17 [solstices and equinoxes]
5.54–61, 68–69 [horizon]
3.15 Aristokles
3.16 Apollinarius
(title unknown) [length of month]
3.17 Plutarch
The Face in the Moon
8 (924d–f) [the moon could be “lunar” material in its proper place]
25 (940a–e) [life on the moon?]
3.18 Theon
3.33 [a quasi-heliocentric theory from ca. 90±50, known also to Vitruuius 9.1.6]
3.19 Ptolemy
7.4 On the method used to record the positions of the fixed stars
9.2 [planetary theory is much more difficult]
Planetary Hypotheses
1.1.8 [model of the sun: see Murschel [1995]]
1.2.2 [arrangement of heavenly bodies]
2.3 [the stars are divine and self-willed bodies]
3.20 Sosigenes
On the Counteracting Spheres [varying distances from us of the planets]
4.1 Berôsos
Book 1 (fr. 4) [the moon]
4.2 Aratos
19–44 [stars and constellations: the Bears]
63–70 [Herakles]
254–267 [Pleiades]
4.3 Eratosthenes
12 [Leo: like Scorpion and Twins, a Babylonian constellation; compare Ptolemy, Syntaxis 7.5.26]
43–44 [Planets, and the “Milk”]
4.4 Petosiris
fr. 7 [signs from eclipses; compare Dorotheos 1.1.4–8]
fr. 10 [signs from comets; fr. 9 is a longer list of comet types: see Keyser [1994b]]
4.5 Hipparchos
Commentary on Aratos’ “Phainomena”
3.5.1–6 [rising times of the fixed stars: employed especially in horoscopes]
4.6 Imbrasios
Predictions about the Sick
2 [lunar effects on illness]
13 [moon in Water-Pourer]
4.7 Dorotheos
Judgments from the Stars about Nativities
2–3 [planetary rulers]
1.1.9–1.2.2 [on “upliftings” or “exaltations” and “abasements” or “humiliations” see Theon of Smurna, Mathematics 3.12 (northward position of planet) and Vettius Valens 2.19, 3.4]
1.6 The power of the seven planets [contrast Ptolemy, Tetrabiblos 1.4–5: Sun and Ares are hot and dry; Kronos cool and dry; moon moist; Zeus and Aphrodite temperate; and Hermes mutably wet and dry]
1.24 [fortune and property, horoscopes 2, 3, and 4]
4.8 Geminus
17.1–25 [arguments against astrology: weather signs]
4.9 Balbillos
Astrologoumena [concerning the length of life from starter and destroyer]
4.10 Thessalos
Praeface 27–28
Book 1, chapter: Twins
Book 2, chapter: Kronos
4.11 Pitenius
4.12 Manethon
1(2).399–445 [sun and moon signs]
2(3).399–428 [length of life; Titan and Huperíon both mean the sun]
3(6).1–34 [children]
3(6).738–750 [Manethon’s nativity]
4.13 Ptolemy
1.1–2 [how astrology works]
2.2 [“national” characteristics—like many earlier Greeks, Ptolemy regards the Mediterranean basin as the most moderate clime]
3.1 [conception and birth as proper moments for a horoscope]
4.14 Antigonos
4.15 Vettius Valens
7.6 127–160 [common fate of six men in a boat]
7.4 11–15 [infant death]
5.1 Hanno
Periplous [voyage down the west coast of Africa]
5.2 Putheas
On the Ocean
(in Strabo 2.4.1) [the island of Thoulê]
(in Geminus 6.9) [“the sun’s bedroom”: one of the few verbal quotations]
5.3 Straton
On Heaven
(fr. 91W paraphrased in Strabo 1.3.4) [seas]
5.4 Eratosthenes
Measurement of the Earth
(fr. in Kleomedes 1.10) [Aristotle On Heaven 2.14 (298a16–20) reports that the “mathematicians” had determined the size of the earth as 40 myriad stades in circumference; then around 304±3 Dikaiarchos repeated the measurement, finding 30 myriads by a method similar to Eratosthenes: see Kleomedes 1.8.3; Archimedes, Sand-Reckoner 1.8; Collinder [1964]; Keyser [2001].]
Book 1 (in Strabo 1.3.4) [In the first book he rejected Homer as a geographical authority, remarking “you’ll find where Odysseus wandered when you find the cobbler who sewed up the bag of winds”; here he wonders whether the division of land and sea is eternal.]
Book 3 (paraphrased in Strabo 2.1.22) [His map employed data gathered in the aftermath of Alexander’s conquests, and his sphragidês served as a general framework to avoid privileging any local perspective; for Eratosthenes, the proper division of humanity was not racial but ethical, as he insisted at the end of book 2.]
5.5 Agatharchides
On the Red Sea
Book 5, fr. 30–34 [fisheaters]
5.6 Seleukos
(title unknown)
(fr. in Strabo 3.5.9) [lunar theory of tides]
5.7 Polubios
2.14.4–12 [Italy and the Po valley]
5.8 Hipparchos
Book 3 (fr. 46–52 D. from Strabo) [determining latitude]
5.9 Skumnos
139–166 [south coast of Spain]
167–195 [south coast of Gaul]
5.10 Poseidonios
On the Ocean
(fr. 49c E-K in Strabo 2.3.4) [circumnavigation of Africa]
(fr. 217 E-K in Strabo 3.5.7–8) [theory of tides: the diagram is reconstructed]
5.11 Anonymous
3 (392b14–393b23) [the Earth’s oceans]
5.12 Strabo
4.5.4–5 [Ireland and “Thoulê,” islands at the western edge of the world]
5.2.7 [Corsica and Sardinia; Theophrastos, Plant Researches 5.8.1–2, describes Kurnos as thickly wooded]
5.13 Anonymous
Voyage on the Red Sea [(15–18) an accurate description of the coast of Somalia and Kenya, known as “Azania,” down to Dar es Salaam; after which “the coast bends to the west and joins the western ocean”]
5.14 Heron
35 [determining longitude intervals]
5.15 Plutarch
The Face in the Moon
26 (941a–c) [“Atlantis”]
5.16 Marinos
Book 3 (quoted in Ptolemy, Geography 1.7.4, 1.7.6) [navigation by the stars]
Book? (in Ptolemy, Geography 1.11–14) [the route to China]
5.17 Theon
3.2 [sphericity of the Earth]
3.3 [sphericity of ocean]
3.3 [heights of mountains]
5.18 Arrian
Voyage on the Black Sea
8 [Phasis River]
21 [island of Achilles]
5.19 Ptolemy
1.1 [introduction; scope of geography]
3.2 [Corsica]
6.1 Eukleidês,
Division of the Scale
Praeface [mechanical production of sound]
6.2 Epikouros
Letter to Herodotos
38–61 [atomic theory]
6.3 Straton
(quoted by Simplicius, Commentary on Aristotle’s “Physics” p. 916 Diels)
6.4 Chrusippos
(title unknown)
(paraphrase in Ioannes of Stobi, Selections 1.161)
(title unknown)
(paraphrase in Ioannes of Stobi, Selections 1.166) [structure of the kosmos]
6.5 Archimedes
Plane Equilibrium
Proposition 6 [how the balance works]
6.6 Philon
Praeface (pp. 49–50 Wescher) [principles]
(pp. 69–70 Wescher) [spring catapult: see Marsden [1971/1999] 175–176]
(pp. 73–74, 76–77 Wescher) [repeating catapult]
6.7 Biton
5 (pp. 57–60 Wescher) [scaling ladder]
6.8 Hipparchos
Bodies Carried Down by Their Weight
(paraphrased by Simplicius, Commentary on Aristotle’s “On Heaven” pp. 264–265 Heiberg) [acceleration]
6.9 Athenaios
11 (14.4–15.2 Wescher) [wall-borer]
18–23 (21.2–26.5 Wescher) [“tortoise”—material added from Vitruuius 10.15.2–7 is in italics]
6.10 Apollonios
On Hippokrates’ “joints”, Book 2 [spine]
6.11 Heron
1.20–21 [weights]
2.1.1 [simple machines (surviving in Greek)]
2.3 [pulley (surviving in Greek)]
3.2.1–2 [the crane (surviving in Greek): compare Vitruuius 10.2.8]
Automatic Theatre
Praeface (pp. 71–74 Wescher) [why study artillery]
1.43 [organ: here emphasizing mechanics of the device rather than properties of air; compare Chapter 8.5 (Aristokles)]
6.12 Plutarch
Platonic Puzzles
7.5 (1005) [reporting Aristotle’s doctrine of projectile motion: Physics 8.10 (266b27–267a22)]
6.13 Ailian
Commentary on the “Timaios”
Book 2 (from Porphyry, Commentary on Ptolemy’s “Harmonics”) [mechanical nature of sound]
6.14 Ptolemy
1.3.3 How the height and depth that relates to sounds is constituted
6.15 Galen
(from Alexander of Aphrodisias’ Refutation 62b21–63a1, 63a5–7, 63a9–17)
(from the same, 63b23–64a1)
7.1 Eukleidês,
1 Nothing that is seen is seen all at once
2 Nearby objects are seen more clearly than distant objects of equal size
12 Of magnitudes extending forward, those on the right seem inclined toward the left, and those on the left toward the right [perspective of roads and buildings]
16 As the eye approaches objects of unequal size which rise one upon another above the eye, the shorter one appears to gain height, but as the eye recedes the taller one appears to gain [e.g., mountains]
19 To know how great is a given height when the sun is not shining [18 gives Thalês’ method; 19 gives Dikaiarchos’ method: see Chapter 5.4]
23 If a sphere is however seen by one eye, always less than a hemisphere is seen, and the part of the sphere that is seen appears as a circumference [compare Aristarchos, Sizes and Distances 2, Chapter 3.3]
51 If, when several objects move at unequal speed, the eye also moves in the same direction, the objects moving with the same speed as the eye will seem to stand still, those moving slower will seem to move in reverse, and those moving faster will seem to move ahead [racers passing]
52 When some objects are moved, and one is obviously not moved, the unmoved object will seem to move backward [a boat anchored in a river: Ptolemy, Optics 2.131–3]
54 When objects move at equal speed, the more remote seem to move slower [Ptolemy, Optics 2.1
55 If the eye remains at rest, while things seen are moved, the more remote of the things seen will seem to be left behind [moving ships]
57 When things lie at the same distance and the edges are not in line with the middle, it makes the whole figure sometimes concave, sometimes convex
7.2 Epikouros
Letter to Herodotos
46–48 [objects give off emanations]
Letter to Puthokles
91 [“The sun is peculiar in always appearing the same size from any distance”; compare below Archimedes, Agatharchides, and Poseidonios on the sun’s apparent size]
7.3 Archimedes
1.10–17 [the apparent size of the sun: see Dijksterhuis [1956/1987] 360–373]
7.4 Diokles,
1 Praeface
Prop. 1 [construction of a parabolic mirror]
7.5 Agatharchides
On the Red Sea
Book 5, fr. 107 [appearance of the sun; see Diodoros 3.48.2–4]
7.6 Poseidonios
On the Ocean (?)
fr. 119 E-K (in Strabo 3.1.5) [appearance of sun during sunsets]
7.7 Heron
Praeface [nature of vision, and what Heron covers]
3–4 [reflection at equal angles]
7.8 Plutarch
The Face in the Moon
17 (930a–d) [apparent exceptions to the equal-angles reflection law]
7.9 Ptolemy
2.13–14 [color]
2.28–31 [binocular vision]
2.107 [after-images, or residual coloring from mirrors and lenses]
2.133 [eyes of a painted face “following” viewer]
3.59 [illusions in depth-perception]
4.109–113 [concave mirrors magnify]
5.3–6 [experiments on angles of refraction]
7.10 Galen
Opinions of Hippokrates and Plato
7.5 [optical pneuma]
8.1 Theophrastos
1–12 [see Murray 1987]
16–17 [Meteorologika 2.5 (361 b14–20); pseudo-Aristotle, Problems 26.8, 21, 33–35: the sun affects winds]
20 [a standard Greek analogy, as in pseudo-Aristotle, Problems 26.48]
22–24 [air is not self-moving: compare Aristotle, Meteorologika 1.4 (342a24–27)]
26–27 [mechanical anti-Aristotelian explanation; compare pseudo-Aristotle, Problems 26.40: bays are full of variable winds]
35–36 [common features of winds]
44–46 [features of individual winds]
8.2 Straton
(fr. paraphrased in Heron, Pneumatics 1 praeface [pp. 24.20–26.23 Schmidt]) [micro-voids: compare pseudo-Aristotle, Problems 11.49, 58; see Furley [1985]]
8.3 Archimedes
Floating Bodies 1
Postulate 1 [essential nature of liquids]
Proposition 1
Proposition 2
Proposition 5
Proposition 6
Proposition 7
8.4 Philon
(pp. 77–78 Wescher) [air-spring catapult]
1–2 [demonstration that air is corporeal]
4 [demonstrations that water is “attached” to air]
6 [demonstrating “attachment” of water to air using a siphon]
7 [“thermoscope,” named libas or “dripper” by Heron, Pneumatika 2.8]
8.5 Aristokles
(fr. in Athenaios, Deipnosophists 4[174–5]) [water-organ: compare Section 6.11 (Heron)]
8.6 Heron
1 Preface (pp. 2–4.13 Schmidt)
(pp. 6.23–8.22 Schmidt)
1.4 [constant-flux siphon: compare Drachmann [1976]]
1.20 [the toilet-bowl or chicken-waterer feedback device]
1.28 [the two-pistoned water-pump by Ktesibios, used as a fire-engine in Alexandria; Humphrey, Oleson and Sherwood [1998] 320]
1.42 [see also Vitruuius 10.8; the “hudraulis” water-organ by Ktesibios in a new version by Heron: Keyser [1988]]
1.43 [the windmill: see Section 6.11]
2.11 [anti-Aristotelian demonstration of rotary motion without friction and through reaction not contact; a cosmological model like 2.6 (sphere floating on stream of air) or 2.7 (sphere suspended by film of water); compare pseudo-Aristotle, kosmos 6 (398b13–20); see Keyser [1992a]]
8.7 Ptolemy
(reported by Simplicius, Commentary on Aristotle’s “On Heaven” pp. 710–711 Heiberg)
9.1 Theophrastos
Stones [written around 312±2]
1–2 [properties]
16–17 [coal]
23–24 [“emerald”]
45–46 [touchstone, to test gold]
49 [glass]
53–54 [production of red ocher]
56 [making white lead]
57 [making verdigris]
60 [quicksilver]
65–66 [gypsum used to make plaster]
21–23 [use of bain-marie in making scents]
1 [troubling properties of fire]
12 [concentrated fire]
17 [paradoxical heating power of cold]
30–33 [varieties of flame]
59 [extinguishers]
9.2 Sotakos
(fr. in Apollonios, Marvels 36)
9.3 Epikouros
Letter to Herodotos
68–70 [nature of “physical attributes”]
9.4 Chrusippos
(title unknown)
(paraphrase in Ioannes of Stobi, Selections 1.129–130) [“element” defined]
(title unknown)
(paraphrase in Alexander of Aphrodisias, Mixture 3.3) [role of pneuma in mixture]
9.5 Bolos
Physical and Mystical Matters
3 [the key, revealed in a vision]
4 [making gold]
1 [purple-dye: originally from book 4, now the opening]
(title unknown) [cited as “Demokritos” in “Zosimos”; compare Theophrastos, Stones 60]
9.6 Poseidonios
(title unknown)
(fr. 235 E-K; paraphrase in Strabo 7.5.8) [asphalt]
9.7 Strabo
16.1.15 [asphalt]
9.8 Maria the Jewess
(title unknown)
(p. 171B) [theory]
(p. 182B) [copper]
(pp. 192–193B, p. 198B) [molubdochalk, leaded-copper, as quality-less metal, black lead]
(p. 146B) [the kêrotakis (Figure 9.2)]
(p. 236B) [the tribikos (
9.9 Anaxilaos
(fr. in P.Stockholm, 2) [to make silver]
9.10 Dioskourides
Medical Materials
5.74 Kadmeia [impure zinc oxide] [P.Leyden X 105]
5.75.5–6 [sublimation of kadmeia]
5.76.1–2 [preparation of “burnt copper”]
5.84.3 [treatment of stibnite]
9.11 “Isis”
To Horus
7 [theory]
9 [whitening metal]
11 [softening metal]
13 [gold at last]
17 [arsenic vapor for silvering]
9.12 Kleopatra
9.13 Menelaus
1–2 [introduction]
4.1 [density of compounds]
5 [the Menelaus equation]
9.14 Plutarch
On the Principle of Cold
1 (945f–946a) [is “cold” a principle?]
15.2 (951c–e) [not air but water is cold]
19.1 (953d–e) [Earth’s core is icy]
21.1 (954d–f) [coldness of element earth]
9.15 Alexander
On Mixture
12.4 [how fire “mixes” with earthy materials]
15.3–4 [the separation of mixtures is not mechanical but qualitative]
9.16 Zosimos
On Sulfur (“Divine”) Water
(pp. 138–139B)
(unknown section) (pp. 129, 202–203B)
(unknown section) (p. 208B)
Final Account 1 (pp. 209, 239–240B)
(unknown section) [he asserts (10.3, p. 145B): “just as minute yeast transforms the entire loaf, so will a small bit of gold transform the whole”]
9.17 The Leyden Papyrus “X”
3 Purifying tin for mixing with asemos [“uncoined,” i.e., silver]
6 Doubling of asemos
25 Purifying silver [cupellation]
31 Recognizing whether tin is adulterated
35 Manufacture of asemos that is black like obsidian [Egyptian niello]
3 7 For giving to copper objects the appearance of gold
55 Another preparation of gold
9.18 The Stockholm Papyrus
43 (= 88) Preparation of smaragdos
61 Another recipe for whitening pearls
74 Preparation of verdigris for smaragdos from solid Cyprian copper
109 Collection of woad
110 Woad dye [familiar to Disokourides 2.185 and Pliny 20.59]
118 Another recipe for purple [a costly color often imitated: Pliny 9.125–141; “authentic” purple was derived from the murex shellfish: see Thompson [1947] 209–218]
135 (=155) Another recipe for purple
10.1 Theophrastos
Plant Researches
1.3.1 [categories]
2.1.1–2 [how plants start to grow]
4.4.8 [cotton]
4.6.1–4 [maritime plants]
6.3.1–3 [silphion, now probably extinct]
Plant Etiology
1.5 [spontaneous generation]
2.4.4–5 [soil types]
2.13.1–2 [effects of locale]
3.2.6 [best time to plant]
3.6.1 [fertilizer]
3.18.1 [plant gender]
5.17.1 [girdling]
On Fire
60 [the peculiar powers of the salamander]
10.2 Bolos
(fr. 81 paraphrased in Geoponica 15.2.21 38)
10.3 Agatharchides
On the Red Sea
Book 5, fr. 72 [the rhinoceros and its battles with elephants]
Book 5, fr. 77 [carnivorous bulls: Aristotle, Animal Researches 8(9).45 (630a18–b18), the aurochs; Ailian 17.45]
Book 5, fr. 99 [fragrant plants in Saba]
Book 5, fr. 110 [maritime olive trees and the sea fan]
10.4 Nikandros
157–189 [the asp (lines 159–160 excised as spurious)]
715–737 [deadly spiders]
10.5 Leonidas
(fr. in Ailian, Animals’ Characters 2.6) [dolphins]
10.6 Poseidonios
(title unknown)
(fr. 241 E-K from Strabo 3.5.10) [unusual trees]
(title unknown)
(fr. 245 E-K from Strabo 17.3.4) [apes resemble people]
10.7 Damostratos,
(fr. in Ailian, Animals’ Characters 13.21) [a “real” triton]
(fr. in Ailian, Animals’ Characters 15.9) [the fifteen-foot long “crane fish,” perhaps Regalecus banksi or Nemicthys scolopaceus]
10.8 Strabo
15.1.21 [amazing trees in India]
10.9 Alexander
Book 2 (fr. in Athenaios, Deipnosophists 9 [392c]) [quail]
Book? (fr. in Athenaios, Deipnosophists 5 [221b–d])
10.10 Philon
20–21 [intelligence of bees]
92 [Philon’s “refutation”]
10.11 Dioskourides
Medical Materials
10.12 Plutarch
Natural Questions
26 (918b–e) [animal instinct]
Animals’ Cleverness
10.3 (966e–7a) [spiders’ webs: Beavis [1988] 34–37, 40–42—and thirsty animals]
13.1 (968f–9a) [reconnoitering foxes]
16.1 (971a-d) [a clever mule: same tale in Ailian 7.42]
17.1 (972b) [smart elephants; also Philon, Animals 28 and Ailian 2.11: a literate elephant]
30.2 (980b–c) [sponges: compare Aristotle, Animal Researches 5.16 (548a10–19); same tale in Ailian 8.16]
10.13 Dionusios
1.6 [falcons and hawks]
1.32 [phoinix]
2.1 [introduction: waterfowl]
2.7 [pelican: Aristotle, Animal Researches 8(9).10 (614b27–30); Ailian 3.23 describes its piety: also in medieval Christian bestiaries, such as the “Physiologus,” which drew heavily on Greek theories of animal behavior]
10.14 Arrian
4–5 [good dogs, and the best of the dogs]
7 [dogs’ character]
16 [hares worth hunting]
10.15 Ailian
Animals’ Characters
2.16 [Skuthian elk?]
2.17 [remora]
2.19 [bear]
3.16 [partridge]
3.41 [rhinoceros?—and possibly the origin of the unicorn fable]
9.24 [angler fish]
16.2 [marvelous birds of India]
10.16 Oppian
5.62–108 [“guide fish”]
10.17 Anonymous
3.20–62 [lions: compare Aristotle, Animal Researches 8(9).44 (629b5–630a8)]
11.1 Theophrastos
Plant Etiology
6.13.1–4 [medicinal plants]
Plant Researches
9.8.2–8 [collecting botanicals]
9.16.4–5 [wolf’s bane: see Nikandros, Alexipharmaka 12–73]
9.17.1–2 [acquired resistance to drugs]
11.2 Praxagoras
(fr. 10S)
Associated Symptoms, Book 2
(fr. 90S) [diarrhea]
(title unknown)
(fr. 22–25S) [humours]
(title unknown)
(fr. 27S) [the pulse]
(title unknown)
(fr. 64S) [causes of diseases]
11.3 Herophilos
Book 2?, (fr. 60vS) [an accurate description of the human liver]
Book 3 (at outset; fr. 61vS) [ovaries]
(fr. 260vS) [drug to improve vision]
(fr. 193vS, paraphrased) [uterus: compare Soranos 3.1–5]
(fr. 196vS) [difficult labor]
(fr. 177vS, paraphrased) [rhythms of pulses]
(title unknown)
(fr. 259vS) [ointment for the anus]
11.4 Erasistratos
Book 1 [inflamed wounds]
Book 1 [heart as pump]
General Principles
Book 2 [blood vessels]
Book 2 [nature of scientific research]
(title unknown) [brain]
(title unknown) [animals give off emanations]
(title unknown) [“do not feed a fever!”—compare also Fevers 3, in Brain [1986] 20]
11.5 Andreas
(fr. 45vS) [morays: compare Thompson [1947] 162–165]
(fr. 31vS) [cream for running sores, and slow-healing or bloody wounds, to prevent inflammation]
(fr. 32vS) [“rose-compound,” good for great pain, fluxes great and small, blisters, and prolapses]
(title unknown)
(fr. 41vS) [hair loss]
11.6 Glaukias
11.7 Agatharchides
On the Red Sea
(fr. in Plutarch, Table-Talk 8.9 [733bc])
11.8 Demetrios
(fr. 19vS; Soranos 3.19) [inflammation of the uterus]
(fr. 17vS; Soranos 3.43) [uterine flux]
11.9 Nikandros
186–206 [hemlock and remedy; compare opium, 433–464]
921–933 [snakebite remedies]
11.10 Asklepiades
1 [corpuscles]
2 [fevers]
3 [assimilation of food]
4 [bladder]
5 [pneuma]
6 [lung]
11.11 Herakleides
Exterior Therapy [reduction of dislocation of the thigh]
11.12 Apollonios
Perfumes and Unguents
(fr. 8vS: Athenaios, Deipnosophists 15.38 [688e–689b]) [good and better supplies]
Ready Remedies
Book 1 (fr. 11vS: Galen, Compound Drugs by Site 1.8) [for dandruff]
Book? (fr. 14vS: Galen, Compound Drugs by Site 2.1) [for hangover]
11.13 Dioskourides
Medical Materials
Preface. 5–9 [collecting and storing botanicals]
1.30.1–4 Olive oil
1.78 Laurel
1.113 Cherries
2.82.1–4 Honey
11.14 Aretaios
Acute and Chronic Diseases
2.1 (pp. 15–16 Hude) [respiration]
3.1.1–2 (p. 36 Hude) [treatment of chronic diseases]
4.5.1–2 (p. 71 Hude) [gonorrhea]
4.12.1–11 (pp. 82–84 Hude) [arthritis]
11.15 Xenokrates
Food from Aquatics
1.1–3 [edibility of fishes]
11.16 Plutarch
8.9.1–5 (731–734) Whether it is possible for new diseases to come into being, and from what causes
11.17 Rufus
Kidney and Bladder Diseases
3.11–12 [stones: compare Aretaios 2.9]
3.30–32 [regimen to prevent stones]
9.7–12 [surgical treatment]
11.18 Soranos
1.7–13 [uterus]
1.36 [best time for conception: Hippokrates, Nature of the Child 15 says the same]
1.39–41 [shaping the fetus]
1.60–62 [contraception and abortion]
11.19 Galen
Sects [written 166±2: “schools” of medicine]
1–3, 6 [a “sect” was a system or worldview, such as Platonism or Stoicism;
Anatomical Procedures [written about 170]
1.2 [observation and dissection]
7.15 [vivisection of the heart]
7.16 [experiment done in about 165, repeating one by Erasistratos; an earlier account in Blood in the Arteries 8; Galen disparages various less and more absurd alternate methods; then:]
Preserving Health [written about 175]
Advice for an Epileptic Boy [written around 190]
2, 4 [diet to prevent seizures]
Anatomy of Nerves [written after 195]
Venesection [written after 200]
5 [benefits of blood-letting]
11.20 Philoumenos
Venomous Animals
17 [echidna or viper]
20 [dipsas: “thirst-inducer”]
22–23 [ammodutes “sand-burrower” and sêps “putrefier”]
12.1 Theophrastos
On the Senses
1 [basic theory of perception]
49–58 [Demokritos on vision, hearing and thought: compare below Section 2 (Epikouros)]
Plant Etiology
6.1.1–3 [flavors]
On Odors
64–68 [sensing smells]
12.2 Epikouros
Letter to Herodotos
49–53 [theories of sense perception: for immediately preceding section, see Chapter 7.2]
12.3 Straton
(unknown work)
(fr. 111W paraphrased in Plutarch, Desire and Grief 4 [697b]) [origin of sensation in the hegemonikon]
12.4 Herophilos
(fr. 137, paraphrased) [hegemonikon]
(fr. 226, paraphrased) [dreams]
12.5 Chrusippos
On the Soul [arguing that the soul resides in the heart; the gaps are of unknown length]
12.6 Melampous
Divination from Birthmarks [entire]
12.7 Ptolemaïs
(fr. in Porphurios, Commentary on Ptolemy’s “Harmonics” 23.24–24.6) [the scale]
(fr. in Porphurios, Commentary on Ptolemy’s “Harmonics” 25.3–26.5)
12.8 Thrasullos
(fr.) [note is a pitch of an attuned sound]
12.9 Aretaios
Acute and Chronic Diseases
3.4.1–3 (pp. 38–39 Hude) [epilepsy]
3.5.4–7 (pp. 40–41 Hude) [melancholê]
3.6.6 (p.42 Hude) [a mad carpenter]
12.10 Antonius
26 The nose [pseudo-Aristotle, Physiognomy 6 compares animal noses]
27 The forehead and brow [pseudo-Aristotle, Physiognomy 6 compares animal brows]
36 The color of the whole body [pseudo-Aristotle, Physiognomy 6 is similar]
12.11 Artemidoros
1.1–2 [oneiros vs. enhupnion]
1.64 [bathing dreams]
1.79 [dreams about one’s mother]
2.68 [flying dreams]
12.12 Aelius Aristides
Sacred Tales
3.21–22 [dream about healing; August 148, in Pergamon]
12.13 Ptolemy
1.1 [reason aids the senses in making distinctions]
3.3 [the power of harmonia]
3.5 [three primary parts of the soul]
12.14 Galen
Soul’s Dependence on Body
3, 5, 8, 11 [effects on soul from body]
Differential Diagnosis of Symptoms
3 [damage to the hegemonikon]
Sources of translations quoted
Texts newly translated
Works cited
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